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Loving the Large – Macro Mushroom

We’re at the beginning of summer and have had some decent, warm sunny days and a reliable source of showers – apparently perfect conditions for this summer/autumn Agaric which has shown itself somewhat early. Great news for all foragers who fancy a fry up!

Agaricus urinascensThis small group of Macro Mushrooms (Agaricus urinascens / A.macrosporus) were found on a grassy roadside verge, not far from some fields and a small wooded area. They’re also found in similar environments such as pastures, woodland edges and grassy woodland clearings.

My initial analysis was to rule them out as Field Mushrooms as these are strictly pasture/field bound, away from the tree line. There was no stark, chrome yellow staining as I scored the flesh, so they weren’t Yellow Stainers either. Horse Mushrooms maybe?

Horse Mushrooms and Macro Mushrooms thrive in similar habitats, although the Horse Mushroom is not linked to woodland/tree situations. But they look much the same, especially when it comes to size; with an average cap diametre of 10 – 25cm. It has been known that the Macro Mushroom can grow up to a massive 30cm across – but this humble group were averaging around the 15cm mark.

Luckily, some immediate visual differences set these mushroom heavyweights apart;

The cap of the Macro mushroom is distinctively scaly with many ochre coloured patches. The margin also tends to naturally become toothed and/or split. It rarely opens to become flat like the smooth cap of the Horse Mushroom.

The veil covering the gills on the underside (when young and unbroken) shows a similar cog wheel style pattern as the Horse Mushroom but is not as defined.

The gills are at first greyish-white which then mature to dark brown, unlike the ‘white to pink to dark brown’ colour changes of the Horse Mushroom.

The Stem is distinctly scaly towards the base, and has a delicate/fine white particle coating all over. The stem on the Horse mushroom is relatively smooth.

The odour of the young Macro Mushroom is like almonds, becoming more ammonia-like with age. The Horse Mushroom has a mild aniseed-like odour.

One thing also to note though is that a variety of A.urinascens is also recognised, known a A.excellens. It’s even more of a Horse Mushroom lookalike, but is just as edible. Its cap is much smoother with only minute scales present and it does not grow as large; having only an average cap diametre of 10-15cm.

Edibility

The good news is that all of the above mentioned Agarics, with the exception of the infamous Yellow Stainer, are safe and good to eat. The Macro Mushroom has an excellent fleshy texture – and there’s lots of it. Don’t be put off by the slightly unpleasant, ammonia smell of the mature specimen, this disappears after cooking.

The taste is surprisingly mild although pleasant; similar to the button mushroom supermarket variety (a young variety of Agaricus bisporus). They’re definitely worth eating though. I always make sure I never ‘over pick’ my find and leave several behind to continue in their reproduction. Lovely.

Macro Mushrooms

Agaricus urinescens – The Macro Mushroom – Notice the yellow-brown scaling on the cap and the grainy/scaly base of the stem. The margin will become toothed or even split apart.

QUICK ID TABLE: MACRO MUSHROOM Agaricus urinascens / A.macrosporus

CAP / FLESH

8-30cm across. Initially rounded/convex. Covered in yellow-brown scales. Margin is toothed; often splitting. Smell of almonds in young specimens then has an odour of ammonia as it ages.

STEM

5-10cm x 2.5-3.5cm. Creamy white with fine white particle coating (easily removable); more scaly towards the base.

GILLS / SPORE PRINT

Whitish-grey maturing to dark brown (no pink colouring at any stage).
Spore Print: Brown (see how to take a spore print here).

HABITAT / SEASON

In small groups or even rings in pasture, grassy verges and grassy woodland clearings; summer to autumn

EDIBILITY

Edible. Mild & Good.

The Genus AGARICUS (Wood Mushrooms/Mushrooms): Characteristics to look out for:

• Many discolour yellowish, reddish or pinkish when cut or bruised.
• Those that discolour bright/chrome yellow should be avoided for consumption.
• Gills in young specimens are often pink (white in a few) – maturing darker brown.
• Make note of any smells, such as aniseed or a typical strong ‘supermarket’ mushroom smell.

Wonders in the Woodchip! The Black Morel

They always say ‘ keep your favourite edible mushroom sites a big secret’, but it’s even better to prize this information out of other people! Hoo ha ha! (my best evil laugh)

Picture of Black Morel (Morchella elata)A Gardener/ landscaper, while in the area, overheard my mushroom ravings while at my local watering hole. He wanted me to identify a mushroom found in one of his new clients’ gardens. After a quick glance on his iPhone I immediately knew it was a Black Morel (Morchella elata).

After badgering the poor chap and discovering the exact location of these beauties (literally up the road!) I went onward to then bother the owner of the said garden. Luckily he was very accommodating and allowed me to take pictures and take them all if I wanted. I only took a few and left the rest to do their thing.

This is the season for Morels, which is early spring (April/May) and they were in abundance amongst the woodchip of this side street front garden. They were a little past their prime and were very large specimens (up to 15cm). Most of the older and blacker ones had split open at the top, but a few were salvageable and I took these home.

The Black Morel is similar to the more common Yellow Morel (Morchella esculenta) but it is darker reddish brown (getting blacker as it ages). The cap is more conical in shape with almost parallel ridges and pits flowing vertically upwards. And like the Yellow Morel it is also completely hollow inside both the cap and stem. Take a closer look at the stem which is whitish/brown – you’ll also see mini granules on it’s surface which have a mildly rough texture.

A totally natural environment for the Black Morel is on Chalky soil within coniferous woodland (esp. Scotland), but in recent years these fungi have appeared more often in urban environments such as roadsides or wasteland, and especially in gardens amongst the woodchip. The mycelium itself remains in the wood throughout transport and when scattered on a soil it likes it tends to fruit in numbers.

As a much sought after, excellent edible mushroom it’s best to grab these when they are younger, and also remember they are not out for long as they have a short fruiting season.

I’m no top chef but I do know you shouldn’t eat these raw, they must be cooked well before consumption. Their hollow body acts as a natural dish when cut in half. Filling them with a savoury stuffing to put in the oven is a great idea. They also go well with in sauces accompanying meat dishes due to their strong robust flavour.

For now I’m going to dry my specimens as this is the best method for storage, and I’ll come back to them later when I have a few recipe ideas. A good tip is to make sure you clean them thoroughly before storing as insects can tend be missed when hidden in the hidey holes!

And for those interested not only with their unique taste and culinary value, here’s a list of nutritional benefits contained within an approximate portion of 3 Morels:

  • Iron: 68% RDA
  • Vitamin D: 52% RDA
  • Copper: 31% RDA
  • Manganese: 29% RDA
  • Phosphorus: 19% RDA
  • Zinc: 14% RDA
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2): 12% RDA

Hope you all find some soon. Enjoy.

Black mushroom with honeycomb pattern

The Black Morel (Morchella elata). Note the granular surface on the stem and hollow body when cut in half.

And to end, I’d like to finish with this popular carol:

The first morel the shepherds did see
In the springtime beneath a dying elm tree:
Morel, morel,
Morel, morel!
Where we find them we never will tell,
Morel!

All together now…

Field Mushrooms again… Keep ‘em coming

I know the Field mushroom is common, I know there are more exotic mushroom finds out there and I know also that you can never have enough of the great Field Mushroom. I love it so…

The Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is often found in small groups or even rings (though not always, as in this case) but is found commonly in older pasture land and grassland in general, but nowhere near trees of any kind (at least 20 metres from the tree line anyway).

I just wanted to point out and exaggerate the identification tips of this beautifully edible UK mushroom. As well as the typical large white ‘mushroom look’, I’ve shown in the pictures the distinctive pink gills of the younger mushroom (these mature to dark brown), and the ring zone two thirds up the stem, which is very small, sometimes indistinct! So this helps in identification, as the Yellow Stainer mushroom; a sinister (but not deadly) looalike has a much larger, floppy ring zone. See my post on the Yellow Stainer mushroom.

Field Mushroom - Common UK Mushroom

Younger and older examples of the Field Mushroom. Notice the slightly scaly white cap.